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How To Create A Speech Synthesis Editor

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Knut Melvær is a humanities technologist currently working as Developer Advocate at Sanity.io. He has beforehand been a abilities marketing consultant and developer at …
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Speak Assistants are on their methodology into of us’s homes, wrists, and pockets. That plot that some of our issue will possible be spoken out loud with the support of digital speech synthesis. On this tutorial, you will learn to create a What You Get Is What You Hear (WYGIWYH) editor for speech synthesis the utilization of Sanity.io’s editor for Transportable Textual issue.

When Steve Jobs unveiled the Macintosh in 1984, it stated “Hello” to us from the stage. Even at that time, speech synthesis wasn’t finally a new abilities: Bell Labs developed the vocoder as early as within the unhurried 30s, and the idea that of a issue assistant computer made it into of us’s awareness when Stanley Kubrick made the vocoder the issue of HAL9000 in 2001: A Residence Odyssey (1968).

It wasn’t sooner than the introduction of Apple’s Siri, Amazon Echo, and Google Assistant within the mid 2015s that issue interfaces in actuality found their methodology into a broader public’s homes, wrists, and pockets. We’re serene in an adoption segment, but it completely looks that these issue assistants are right here to place.

In other phrases, the rep isn’t ethical passive text on a display anymore. Web editors and UX designers wish to decide up accustomed to creating issue and products and providers that desires to be spoken out loud.

We’re already exciting snappily against the utilization of issue management techniques that enable us to work with our issue headlessly and through APIs. The final share is to create editorial interfaces that create it more uncomplicated to tailor issue for issue. So let’s put ethical that!

What Is SSML

Whereas web browsers employ W3C’s specification for HyperText Markup Language (HTML) to visually render documents, most issue assistants employ Speech Synthesis Markup Language (SSML) when producing speech.

A minimal instance the utilization of the root part , and the paragraph (

) and sentence () tags:


  

Here is the first sentence of the paragraph. Here’s one other sentence.

Press play to listen to to the snippet:

Where SSML gets existing is when we introduce tags for and (pitch):


  

Build some extra weight on these phrases And verbalize this a minute elevated and sooner!

Press play to listen to to the snippet:

SSML has more substances, but this is ample to decide up a feel for the fundamentals. Now, let’s win a better thought at the editor that we will employ to create the speech synthesis improving interface.

The Editor For Transportable Textual issue

To create this editor, we’ll employ the editor for Transportable Textual issue that substances in Sanity.io. Transportable Textual issue is a JSON specification for successfully off text improving, that would possibly maybe even be serialized into any markup language, such as SSML. This vogue you would possibly maybe perhaps without problems employ the same text snippet in a couple of locations the utilization of various markup languages.

Sanity.io’s default editor for Transportable Textual issue
Sanity.io’s default editor for Transportable Textual issue (Edifying preview)

Installing Sanity

Sanity.io is a platform for structured issue that incorporates an originate-supply improving atmosphere built with React.js. It takes two minutes to decide up all of it up and working.

Kind npm i -g @sanity/cli && sanity init into your terminal, and say the instructions. Regain “empty”, should you’re brought on for a mission template.

When you don’t wish to coach this tutorial and create this editor from scratch, which you can too clone this tutorial’s code and say the instructions in README.md.

When the editor is downloaded, you bustle sanity originate within the mission folder to originate it up. It’ll originate a development server that employ Sizzling Module Reloading to update modifications as you edit its info.

How To Configure Schemas In Sanity Studio

Growing The Editor Recordsdata

We’ll originate by making a folder called ssml-editor within the /schemas folder. In that folder, we’ll build some empty info:

/ssml-tutorial/schemas/ssml-editor
                        ├── alias.js
                        ├── emphasis.js
                        ├── annotations.js
                        ├── preview.js
                        ├── prosody.js
                        ├── sayAs.js
                        ├── blocksToSSML.js
                        ├── speech.js
                        ├── SSMLeditor.css
                        └── SSMLeditor.js

Now we are able so that you would possibly maybe add issue schemas in these info. Pronounce schemas are what defines the records structure for the successfully off text, and what Sanity Studio uses to generate the editorial interface. They are easy JavaScript objects that mainly require ethical a title and a style.

We are able to also add a title and a description to create a minute nicer for editors. As an instance, it is far a schema for a easy text area for a title:

export default {
  title: 'title',
  style: 'string',
  title: 'Title',
  description: 'Titles desires to be immediate and descriptive'
}
Sanity Studio with a title area and an editor for Transportable Textual issue
The studio with our title area and the default editor (Edifying preview)

Transportable Textual issue is built on the premise of rich text as info. Here is extremely fantastic because it allows you to demand your successfully off text, and convert it into beautiful exceptional any markup you’ll need.

It is far an array of objects called “blocks” which you would possibly maybe perhaps judge of because the “paragraphs”. In a block, there is an array of children spans. Every block can have one plot and a jam of stamp definitions, which record info structures disbursed on the youngsters spans.

Sanity.io comes with an editor that can read and write to Transportable Textual issue, and is activated by placing the block style inside of an array area, be pleased this:

// speech.js
export default {
  title: 'speech',
  style: 'array',
  title: 'SSML Editor',
  of: [
    { type: 'block' }
  ]
}

An array would possibly maybe even be of a couple of forms. For an SSML-editor, these will possible be blocks for audio info, but that falls out of doors of the scope of this tutorial.

The final factor we wish to place is so that you would possibly maybe add a issue style where this editor would possibly maybe even be frail. Most assistants employ a easy issue mannequin of “intents” and “fulfillments”:

  • Intents
    In overall a list of strings frail by the AI mannequin to delineate what the person desires to decide up performed.
  • Fulfillments
    This happens when an “intent” is identified. A success on the entire is — or now now not decrease than — comes with some kind of response.

So let’s create a easy issue style called success that employ the speech synthesis editor. Create a new file called success.js and build it apart within the /schema folder:

// success.js
export default {
  title: 'success',
  style: 'doc',
  title: 'Fulfillment',
  of: [
    {
      name: 'title',
      type: 'string',
      title: 'Title',
      description: 'Titles should be short and descriptive'
    },
    {
      name: 'response',
      type: 'speech'
    }
  ]
}

Set up the file, and originate schema.js. Add it to your studio be pleased this:

// schema.js
import createSchema from 'segment:@sanity/contaminated/schema-creator'
import schemaTypes from 'all:segment:@sanity/contaminated/schema-style'
import fullfillment from './fullfillment'
import speech from './speech'

export default createSchema({
  title: 'default',
  forms: schemaTypes.concat([
    fullfillment,
    speech,
  ])
})

When you now bustle sanity originate in your disclose line interface at some stage within the mission’s root folder, the studio will originate up within the community, and also you’ll be ready so that you would possibly maybe add entries for fulfillments. You would possibly maybe maybe perhaps preserve the studio working whereas we scurry on, as this would possibly maybe maybe perhaps auto-reload with new modifications should you build the information.

Adding SSML To The Editor

By default, the block style will give you a former editor for visually oriented successfully off text with heading styles, decorator styles for emphasis and sturdy, annotations for links, and lists. Now we wish to override these with the audial ideas display in SSML.

We commence with defining the various issue structures, with vital descriptions for the editors, that we’re going so that you would possibly maybe add to the block in SSMLeditorSchema.js as configurations for annotations. These are “emphasis”, “alias”, “prosody”, and “verbalize as”.

Emphasis

We commence with “emphasis”, which controls how exceptional weight is positioned on the marked text. We provide an explanation for it as a string with a list of predefined values that the person can plot shut from:

// emphasis.js
export default {
  title: 'emphasis',
  style: 'object',
  title: 'Emphasis',
  description:
    'The energy of the emphasis positioned on the contained text',
  fields: [
    {
      name: 'level',
      type: 'string',
      options: {
        list: [
          { value: 'strong', title: 'Strong' },
          { value: 'moderate', title: 'Moderate' },
          { value: 'none', title: 'None' },
          { value: 'reduced', title: 'Reduced' }
        ]
      }
    }
  ]
}

Alias

Typically the written and the spoken term differ. As an instance, it is top to employ the abbreviation of a phrase in a written text, but have the entire phrase read aloud. As an instance:

Here's a SSML tutorial
Press play to listen to to the snippet:

The enter area for the alias is a easy string:

// alias.js
export default {
  title: 'alias',
  style: 'object',
  title: 'Alias (sub)',
  description:
    'Replaces the contained text for pronunciation. This allows a doc to admire both a spoken and written abolish.',
  fields: [
    {
      name: 'text',
      type: 'string',
      title: 'Replacement text',
    }
  ]
}

Prosody

With the prosody property we are able to management various aspects how text desires to be spoken, be pleased pitch, rate, and quantity. The markup for this would possibly maybe maybe perhaps thought be pleased this:

Stammer this with an extra low pitch, and this loudly with a snappily rate
Press play to listen to to the snippet:

This enter can have three fields with predefined string alternatives:

// prosody.js
export default {
  title: 'prosody',
  style: 'object',
  title: 'Prosody',
  description: 'Protect a watch on of the pitch, speaking rate, and quantity',
  fields: [
    {
      name: 'pitch',
      type: 'string',
      title: 'Pitch',
      description: 'The baseline pitch for the contained text',
      options: {
        list: [
          { value: 'x-low', title: 'Extra low' },
          { value: 'low', title: 'Low' },
          { value: 'medium', title: 'Medium' },
          { value: 'high', title: 'High' },
          { value: 'x-high', title: 'Extra high' },
          { value: 'default', title: 'Default' }
        ]
      }
    },
    {
      title: 'rate',
      style: 'string',
      title: 'Price',
      description:
        'A change within the speaking rate for the contained text',
      alternatives: {
        list: [
          { value: 'x-slow', title: 'Extra slow' },
          { value: 'slow', title: 'Slow' },
          { value: 'medium', title: 'Medium' },
          { value: 'fast', title: 'Fast' },
          { value: 'x-fast', title: 'Extra fast' },
          { value: 'default', title: 'Default' }
        ]
      }
    },
    {
      title: 'quantity',
      style: 'string',
      title: 'Quantity',
      description: 'The amount for the contained text.',
      alternatives: {
        list: [
          { value: 'silent', title: 'Silent' },
          { value: 'x-soft', title: 'Extra soft' },
          { value: 'medium', title: 'Medium' },
          { value: 'loud', title: 'Loud' },
          { value: 'x-loud', title: 'Extra loud' },
          { value: 'default', title: 'Default' }
        ]
      }
    }
  ]
}

Stammer As

The final one we wish to include is . This ticket lets us suppose a minute more management over how definite info is pronounced. We are able to even employ it to bleep out phrases if or now now not you will be able to deserve to redact one thing in issue interfaces. That’s @!%&© vital!

Carry out I in actuality wish to frakking spell it out for you!?
Press play to listen to to the snippet:
// sayAs.js
export default {
  title: 'sayAs',
  style: 'object',
  title: 'Stammer as...',
  description: 'Allows you to verbalize facts about the form of text invent that is contained at some stage within the part. It also helps specify the stage of part for rendering
  the contained text.',
  fields: [
    {
      name: 'interpretAs',
      type: 'string',
      title: 'Interpret as...',
      options: {
        list: [
          { value: 'cardinal', title: 'Cardinal numbers' },
          {
            value: 'ordinal',
            title: 'Ordinal numbers (1st, 2nd, 3th...)'
          },
          { value: 'characters', title: 'Spell out characters' },
          { value: 'fraction', title: 'Say numbers as fractions' },
          { value: 'expletive', title: 'Blip out this word' },
          {
            value: 'unit',
            title: 'Adapt unit to singular or plural'
          },
          {
            value: 'verbatim',
            title: 'Spell out letter by letter (verbatim)'
          },
          { value: 'date', title: 'Say as a date' },
          { value: 'telephone', title: 'Say as a telephone number' }
        ]
      }
    },
    {
      title: 'date',
      style: 'object',
      title: 'Date',
      fields: [
        {
          name: 'format',
          type: 'string',
          description: 'The format attribute is a sequence of date field character codes. Supported field character codes in format are {y, m, d} for year, month, and day (of the month) respectively. If the field code appears once for year, month, or day then the number of digits expected are 4, 2, and 2 respectively. If the field code is repeated then the number of expected digits is the number of times the code is repeated. Fields in the date text may be separated by punctuation and/or spaces.'
        },
        {
          name: 'detail',
          type: 'number',
          validation: Rule =>
            Rule.required()
              .min(0)
              .max(2),
          description: 'The detail attribute controls the spoken form of the date. For detail='1' only the day fields and one of month or year fields are required, although both may be supplied'
        }
      ]
    }
  ]
}

Now we are able to import these in an annotations.js file, which makes things a minute tidier.

// annotations.js
export {default as alias} from './alias'
export {default as emphasis} from './emphasis'
export {default as prosody} from './prosody'
export {default as sayAs} from './sayAs'

Now we are able to import these annotation forms into our well-known schemas:

// schema.js
import createSchema from "segment:@sanity/contaminated/schema-creator"
import schemaTypes from "all:segment:@sanity/contaminated/schema-style"
import success from './success'
import speech from './ssml-editor/speech'
import {
  alias,
  emphasis,
  prosody,
  sayAs
} from './annotations'

export default createSchema({
  title: "default",
  forms: schemaTypes.concat([
    fulfillment,
    speech,
    alias,
    emphasis,
    prosody,
    sayAs
  ])
})

Lastly, we are able to now add these to the editor be pleased this:

// speech.js
export default {
  title: 'speech',
  style: 'array',
  title: 'SSML Editor',
  of: [
    {
      type: 'block',
      styles: [],
      lists: [],
      marks: {
        decorators: [],
        annotations: [
          {type: 'alias'},
          {type: 'emphasis'},
          {type: 'prosody'},
          {type: 'sayAs'}
        ]
      }
    }
  ]
}

Request that we also added empty arrays to styles, and decorators. This disables the default styles and decorators (be pleased fearless and emphasis) since they don’t create that exceptional sense in this particular case.

Customizing The Watch And In actual fact feel

Now we have the functionality in station, but since we haven’t specified any icons, each annotation will employ the default icon, which makes the editor now now not easy to for scurry employ for authors. So let’s repair that!

With the editor for Transportable Textual issue it’s conceivable to inject React substances both for the icons and for the methodology the marked text desires to be rendered. Here, we’ll ethical let some emoji put the work for us, but you would possibly maybe perhaps perhaps obviously scurry far with this, making them dynamic etc. For prosody we’ll even create the icon change looking on the quantity chosen. Be conscious that I overlooked the fields in these snippets for brevity, you shouldn’t bewitch them in your local info.

// alias.js
import React from 'react'

export default {
  title: 'alias',
  style: 'object',
  title: 'Alias (sub)',
  description: 'Replaces the contained text for pronunciation. This allows a doc to admire both a spoken and written abolish.',
  fields: [
    /* all the fields */
  ],
  blockEditor: {
    icon: () => '🔤',
    render: ({ children }) => {children} 🔤,
  },
};
// emphasis.js
import React from 'react'

export default {
  title: 'emphasis',
  style: 'object',
  title: 'Emphasis',
  description: 'The energy of the emphasis positioned on the contained text',
  fields: [
    /* all the fields */
  ],
  blockEditor: {
    icon: () => '🗯',
    render: ({ children }) => {children} 🗯,
  },
};

// prosody.js
import React from 'react'

export default {
  title: 'prosody',
  style: 'object',
  title: 'Prosody',
  description: 'Protect a watch on of the pitch, speaking rate, and quantity',
  fields: [
    /* all the fields */
  ],
  blockEditor: {
    icon: () => '🔊',
    render: ({ children, quantity }) => (
      
        {children} {['x-loud', 'loud'].involves(quantity) ? '🔊' : '🔈'}
      
    ),
  },
};
// sayAs.js
import React from 'react'

export default {
  title: 'sayAs',
  style: 'object',
  title: 'Stammer as...',
  description: 'Allows you to verbalize facts about the form of text invent that is contained at some stage within the part. It also helps specify the stage of part for rendering the contained text.',
  fields: [
    /* all the fields */
  ],
  blockEditor: {
    icon: () => '🗣',
    render: props => {props.children} 🗣,
  },
};

The personalised SSML editor
The editor with our personalized SSML marks (Edifying preview)

Now you have an editor for bettering text that would possibly maybe even be frail by issue assistants. But wouldn’t or now now not it is kinda vital if editors also would possibly maybe perhaps preview how the text in actuality will sound be pleased?

Adding A Preview Button The employ of Google’s Textual issue-to-Speech

Native speech synthesis enhance is at all times on its methodology for browsers. But in this tutorial, we’ll employ Google’s Textual issue-to-Speech API which supports SSML. Constructing this preview functionality would possibly maybe even be a demonstration of how you serialize Transportable Textual issue into SSML in despite service it is top to employ this for.

Wrapping The Editor In A React Factor

We commence with opening the SSMLeditor.js file and add the next code:

// SSMLeditor.js
import React, { Fragment } from 'react';
import { BlockEditor } from 'segment:@sanity/abolish-builder';

export default characteristic SSMLeditor(props) {
  return (
    
      
    
  );
}

We now have wrapped the editor in our beget React component. The overall props it desires, including the records it contains, are handed down in right-time. To for scurry employ this component, or now now not you will be able to deserve to import it into your speech.js file:

// speech.js
import React from 'react'
import SSMLeditor from './SSMLeditor.js'

export default {
  title: 'speech',
  style: 'array',
  title: 'SSML Editor',
  inputComponent: SSMLeditor,
  of: [
    {
      type: 'block',
      styles: [],
      lists: [],
      marks: {
        decorators: [],
        annotations: [
          { type: 'alias' },
          { type: 'emphasis' },
          { type: 'prosody' },
          { type: 'sayAs' },
        ],
      },
    },
  ],
}

When you build this and the studio reloads, it should thought beautiful exceptional precisely the same, but that’s because we haven’t started tweaking the editor but.

Convert Transportable Textual issue To SSML

The editor will build the issue as Transportable Textual issue, an array of objects in JSON that makes it straightforward to rework successfully off text into despite format you wish it to be. When you convert Transportable Textual issue into one other syntax or format, we call that “serialization”. As a result of this truth, “serializers” are the recipes for the methodology the successfully off text desires to be converted. On this share, we will possible be able so that you would possibly maybe add serializers for speech synthesis.

You’ve already made the blocksToSSML.js file. Now we’ll must add our first dependency. Open by working the terminal disclose npm init -y inside of the ssml-editor folder. This would possibly maybe maybe perhaps add a equipment.json where the editor’s dependencies will possible be listed.

As soon as that’s performed, you would possibly maybe perhaps bustle npm set up @sanity/block-issue-to-html to decide up a library that makes it more uncomplicated to serialize Transportable Textual issue. We’re the utilization of the HTML-library because SSML has the same XML syntax with tags and attributes.

Here’s a bunch of code, so put admire to copy-paste it. I’ll point out the pattern pretty under the snippet:

// blocksToSSML.js
import blocksToHTML, { h } from '@sanity/block-issue-to-html'

const serializers = {
  marks: {
    prosody: ({ children, stamp: { rate, pitch, quantity } }) =>
      h('prosody', { attrs: { rate, pitch, quantity } }, children),
    alias: ({ children, stamp: { text } }) =>
      h('sub', { attrs: { alias: text } }, children),
    sayAs: ({ children, stamp: { interpretAs } }) =>
      h('verbalize-as', { attrs: { 'account for-as': interpretAs } }, children),
    damage: ({ children, stamp: { time, energy } }) =>
      h('damage', { attrs: { time: '${time}ms', energy } }, children),
    emphasis: ({ children, stamp: { stage } }) =>
      h('emphasis', { attrs: { stage } }, children)
  }
}

export const blocksToSSML = blocks => blocksToHTML({ blocks, serializers })

This code will export a characteristic that takes the array of blocks and loop through them. Each time a block contains a stamp, this would possibly maybe maybe perhaps survey a serializer for the form. If you have marked some text to have emphasis, it this characteristic from the serializers object:

emphasis: ({ children, stamp: { stage } }) =>
      h('emphasis', { attrs: { stage } }, children)

Presumably you acknowledge the parameter from where we outlined the schema? The h() characteristic lets us outlined an HTML part, that is, right here we “cheat” and makes it return an SSML part called . We also give it the attribute stage if that is printed, and station the children substances inside of it — which usually would be the text you have marked up with emphasis.

{
    "_type": "block",
    "_key": "f2c4cf1ab4e0",
    "vogue": "standard",
    "markDefs": [
        {
            "_type": "emphasis",
            "_key": "99b28ed3fa58",
            "level": "strong"
        }
    ],
    "children": [
        {
            "_type": "span",
            "_key": "f2c4cf1ab4e01",
            "text": "Say this strongly!",
            "marks": [
                "99b28ed3fa58"
            ]
        }
    ]
}

That is how the above structure in Transportable Textual issue gets serialized to this SSML:

Stammer this strongly

When you’ll need enhance for more SSML tags, you would possibly maybe perhaps add more annotations within the schema, and add the annotation forms to the marks share within the serializers.

Now we have a characteristic that returns SSML markup from our marked up successfully off text. The final segment is to create a button that lets us send this markup to a text-to-speech service.

Adding A Preview Button That Speaks Lend a hand To You

Ideally, we will deserve to have frail the browser’s speech synthesis capabilities within the Web API. That methodology, we would have gotten away with much less code and dependencies.

As of early 2019, nevertheless, native browser enhance for speech synthesis is serene in its early stages. It looks be pleased enhance for SSML is on the methodology, and there is proof of ideas of shopper-side JavaScript implementations for it.

Chances are you will employ this issue with a issue assistant at the least. Both Google Assistant and Amazon Echo (Alexa) enhance SSML as responses in a success. On this tutorial, we will possible be able to employ Google’s text-to-speech API, which also sounds pretty and enhance several languages.

Open by acquiring an API key by signing up for Google Cloud Platform (this would possibly maybe maybe perhaps even be free for the first 1 million characters you direction of). Whereas you’re signed up, you would possibly maybe perhaps create a new API key on this page.

Now you would possibly maybe perhaps originate your PreviewButton.js file, and add this code to it:

// PreviewButton.js
import React from 'react'
import Button from 'segment:@sanity/substances/buttons/default'
import { blocksToSSML } from './blocksToSSML'

// You desires to appear at out with sharing this key
// I build it right here to preserve the code easy
const API_KEY = ''
const GOOGLE_TEXT_TO_SPEECH_URL = 'https://texttospeech.googleapis.com/v1beta1/text:synthesize?key=' + API_KEY

const discuss = async blocks => {
  // Serialize blocks to SSML
  const ssml = blocksToSSML(blocks)
  // Put together the Google Textual issue-to-Speech configuration
  const body = JSON.stringify({
    enter: { ssml },
    // Regain the language code and issue title (A-F)
    issue: { languageCode: 'en-US', title: 'en-US-Wavenet-A' },
    // Exercise MP3 in record to play in browser
    audioConfig: { audioEncoding: 'MP3' }
  })
  // Ship the SSML string to the API
  const res = await decide up(GOOGLE_TEXT_TO_SPEECH_URL, {
    methodology: 'POST',
    body
  }).then(res => res.json())
  // Play the returned audio with the Browser’s Audo API
  const audio = new Audio('info:audio/wav;base64,' + res.audioContent)
  audio.play()
}

export default characteristic PreviewButton (props) {
  return 
}

I’ve saved this preview button code to a minimal to create it more uncomplicated to coach this tutorial. For sure, you would possibly maybe perhaps perhaps abolish it out by adding affirm to display if the preview is processing or create it conceivable to preview with the various voices that Google’s API supports.

Add the button to SSMLeditor.js:

// SSMLeditor.js
import React, { Fragment } from 'react';
import { BlockEditor } from 'segment:@sanity/abolish-builder';
import PreviewButton from './PreviewButton';

export default characteristic SSMLeditor(props) {
  return (
    
      
      
    
  );
}

Now you desires to be ready to stamp up your text with the various annotations, and listen to the final result when pushing “Talk about text”. Cool, isn’t it?

You’ve Created A Speech Synthesis Editor, And Now What?

If you have adopted this tutorial, you have been through straightforward solutions to employ the editor for Transportable Textual issue in Sanity Studio to create personalized annotations and customize the editor. You would possibly maybe maybe perhaps employ these talents for all types of things, now now not most consuming to create a speech synthesis editor. You’ve also been during the technique to serialize Transportable Textual issue into the syntax you wish. Obviously, this will be at hand whereas you happen to’re building frontends in React or Vue. You would possibly maybe maybe perhaps even employ these talents to generate Markdown from Transportable Textual issue.

We haven’t covered how you in actuality employ this together with a issue assistant. When it is top to win a thought at, you would possibly maybe perhaps employ exceptional of the same logic as with the preview button in a serverless characteristic, and jam it because the API endpoint for a success the utilization of webhooks, e.g. with Dialogflow.

When you’d be pleased me to jot down an tutorial on the technique to employ the speech synthesis editor with a issue assistant, admire to present me a ticket on Twitter or part within the feedback share under.

Extra Reading on SmashingMag:

Smashing Editorial(dm, ra, yk, il)

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